Research is a problem solving activity that is done systematically and scientifically. It is a “careful, systematic, patient study and investigation in a field of knowledge undertaken to discover or establish facts and principles” (Fraenkel and wallen, 2007). In addition, Kerlinger and Lee (1994) defines research as a systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.
Research is systematic when it follows steps or stages that begin with the identification of the problem, relating this problem with existing theories, collection data, analysis and interpretation of the data, drawing of conclusions, and relating these conclusions into the main stream of knowledge.
Scientific research is controlled such that exact and precise outcomes are expected. Everything is so planned such that any observer of the investigation will develop full confidence in the results.